Tobacco smoking

History and Popularization of Tobacco Smoking

  • Tobacco smoking dates back to 5000-3000 BC in Mesoamerica and South America.
  • It was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century by European colonists.
  • Smoking became widespread with the introduction of automated cigarette-rolling apparatus.
  • John Rolfe successfully raised tobacco as a cash crop in Virginia in 1612.
  • Tobacco demand led to westward expansion and depletion of soil.
  • Tobacco was introduced to France in 1560 and spread to England.
  • It was also introduced to Africa and became popular by the 1650s.
  • Tobacco faced criticism from state and religious leaders, but restrictions were largely ignored.
  • The American Civil War and industrialization of cigarette production led to increased tobacco consumption in the US.

Use of Tobacco in Ancient Cultures

  • Smoking was practiced in ancient civilizations like the Babylonians, Indians, and Chinese.
  • It was used in shamanistic rituals and to achieve trances.
  • Tobacco smoke enemas were used for stimulation of respiration.
  • Eastern North American tribes used tobacco in ceremonial pipes.
  • Tobacco had medicinal uses, such as pain relief and treatment for colds.

Health Effects and Influences on Smoking Behavior

  • Smoking triggers chemical reactions in nerve endings, increasing heart rate and alertness.
  • Dopamine and endorphins are released, associated with pleasure.
  • Smoking is linked to lung cancer, as established by research in the 1920s and 1950s.
  • Rates of smoking have declined in the developed world since 1965 but continue to rise in the developing world.
  • Tobacco use is prevalent among men (49%) and women (11%) in certain low-income and middle-income countries.
  • Cigarette advertisements and smoking by parents, siblings, and friends encourage smoking among students.
  • Many smokers start during adolescence or early adulthood.
  • Perceived pleasure and social peer pressure offset initial unpleasant symptoms.
  • Avoidance of withdrawal symptoms and negative reinforcement become motivations to continue smoking.

Scientific Evidence and Awareness

  • German scientists linked smoking to lung cancer in the late 1920s.
  • British researchers demonstrated a clear relationship between smoking and cancer in 1950.
  • Fritz Lickint's research in 1929 provided statistical evidence of a lung cancer-tobacco link.
  • Richard Doll's research in 1950 showed a close link between smoking and lung cancer.
  • The British Doctors Study in 1954 confirmed the relationship between smoking and lung cancer.
  • The United States Surgeon General's Report in 1964 suggested the link between smoking and cancer.
  • Tobacco companies initially claimed contributory negligence, but health authorities reversed their position in 1998.
  • The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement restricted tobacco advertisement and resulted in the largest civil settlement in US history.

Consumption and Global Trends

  • Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of Nicotiana plants.
  • Nicotiana tabacum is the most commonly grown species.
  • Tobacco leaves are cured and combined with additives to increase potency or improve smoke effects.
  • Common methods of consuming tobacco include cigarettes, cigars, and beedis.
  • Cigar smoking prevalence varies by location, with the US being the top consuming country.
  • Tobacco consumption in the US declined from 42% to 20.8% between 1965 and 2006.
  • Smoking rates have leveled off or declined in many industrialized nations.
  • Tobacco consumption in the developing world continued to rise in 2002.
  • Smoking in Africa is often considered modern and receives less adverse attention.
  • Russia is the top consumer of tobacco, followed by Indonesia, Laos, Ukraine, Belarus, Greece, Jordan, and China.

Tobacco smoking Data Sources

Reference URL
Knowledge Graph