Cardiovascular disease

Symptoms, Complications, and Types of Cardiovascular Diseases

  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Heart failure, heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, peripheral artery disease, sudden cardiac arrest
  • Coronary artery diseases
  • Stroke
  • Heart failure
  • Hypertensive heart disease
  • Rheumatic heart disease

Risk Factors and Prevention

  • Diabetes
  • High blood lipids
  • Excess weight
  • Smoking
  • Excessive drug use and alcohol intake
  • Healthy eating
  • Exercise
  • Avoiding tobacco smoke
  • Limited alcohol intake
  • Overall lifestyle changes

Treatment and Medication

  • Treating high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and diabetes
  • Medications such as aspirin, beta blockers, and blood thinners
  • Antibiotics for strep throat to prevent rheumatic heart disease
  • Unclear benefit of aspirin for otherwise healthy individuals
  • Treating risk factors to improve overall cardiovascular health

Subtopic - Sex, Tobacco, Physical inactivity, Diet, Alcohol

  • Men are at greater risk of heart disease than pre-menopausal women.
  • Risk of heart disease in women after menopause is argued to be similar to men, but recent data disputes this.
  • Females with diabetes are more likely to develop heart disease than males with diabetes.
  • Women with high blood pressure and pregnancy complications have three times the risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Coronary heart diseases are more common among middle-aged men than women.
  • Cigarettes are the major form of smoked tobacco.
  • Risks to health from tobacco use include cardiovascular disease.
  • Approximately 10% of cardiovascular disease is attributed to smoking.
  • Quitting smoking by age 30 reduces the risk of death to almost as low as never smokers.
  • Insufficient physical activity is the fourth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide.
  • In 2008, 31.3% of adults were insufficiently physically active.
  • Participating in 150 minutes of moderate physical activity per week reduces the risk of heart disease and diabetes.
  • Physical activity assists in weight loss and improves blood glucose control, blood pressure, lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity.
  • High intake of saturated fat, trans-fats, and salt is linked to cardiovascular risk.
  • Low intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish is linked to cardiovascular risk.
  • Processed foods high in fats and sugars promote obesity and increase cardiovascular risk.
  • Reduction of saturated fat intake for at least two years reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • High trans-fat intake has adverse effects on blood lipids and inflammatory markers.
  • High levels of alcohol consumption are directly related to cardiovascular disease.
  • Low levels of alcohol consumption may be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Associations between moderate alcohol consumption and stroke protection are non-causal.
  • At the population level, the health risks of drinking alcohol exceed potential benefits.

Subtopic - Air Pollution, Cardiovascular Risk Assessment, Depression and Traumatic Stress, Occupational Exposure, Somatic Mutations, Radiation Therapy

  • Particulate matter under 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) is a major focus in studying the effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease.
  • Long-term exposure to PM2.5 increases the rate of atherosclerosis and inflammation.
  • Short-term exposure to PM2.5 (2 hours) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality by 48% for every 25 μg/m of PM2.5.
  • PM2.5 is linked to increased blood pressure, irregular heart rhythm, reduced heart rate variability, and heart failure.
  • PM2.5 is also associated with carotid artery thickening and increased risk of acute myocardial infarction.
  • Existing cardiovascular disease or previous cardiovascular events are strong predictors of future cardiovascular events.
  • Age, sex, smoking, blood pressure, blood lipids, and diabetes are important predictors of future cardiovascular disease.
  • Composite risk scores combining these predictors are used to estimate an individual's future cardiovascular disease risk.
  • Various risk scores exist, but their respective merits are debated.
  • Other diagnostic tests and biomarkers, such as family history, coronary artery calcification score, and markers of kidney function, lack clear-cut evidence for routine use.
  • Mental health problems like depression and traumatic stress are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  • Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as smoking and a sedentary lifestyle, do not fully explain the increased risk associated with depression, stress, and anxiety.
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder independently increases the risk of incident coronary heart disease, even after adjusting for depression and other factors.
  • Certain toxins, extreme temperatures, exposure to tobacco smoke, and mental health concerns like stress and depression are linked to cardiovascular disease in the workplace.
  • Mentally stressful work, lack of control over working situation, effort-reward imbalance, low social support, injustice, insufficient opportunities for personal development, long working weeks, and noise exposure are associated with increased cardiovascular risk.
  • Working night schedules and exposure to ionizing radiation increase the risk of hypertension and stroke.
  • Men have a higher risk of heart attacks and stroke in the workplace compared to women.
  • Workplace exposure to silica dust, engine exhaust, welding fumes, and various chemicals increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Certain leukemia-associated mutations in blood cells, known as clonal hematopoiesis, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Presence of these mutations is linked to cardiovascular disease-related incidents and mortality.
  • Large-scale research projects have found a robust link between these mutations and cardiovascular disease.
  • Clonal hematopoiesis is associated with symptoms like cardiomyopathy, myocardial fibrosis, valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, heart arrhythmia, and peripheral artery disease.
  • Evidence suggests that these mutations may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.
  • Radiation treatments for cancer, particularly breast cancer therapy, increase the risk of heart disease and death.
  • Therapeutic radiation increases the risk of subsequent heart attack or stroke by

Cardiovascular disease Data Sources

Reference URL
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