Drug withdrawal

Symptoms and Severity of Drug Withdrawal

  • Symptoms occur upon abrupt discontinuation or decrease in drug intake
  • Dependence can be physical, psychological, or both
  • Withdrawal symptoms vary with the type of drug consumed
  • Opiate withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, sweating, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Alcohol withdrawal symptoms include irritability, fatigue, shaking, sweating, and nausea
  • Severity of withdrawal symptoms can be influenced by the route of administration
  • Withdrawal from certain drugs can be fatal, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, alcohol, and glucocorticoids
  • Withdrawal from opiates can cause miscarriage in pregnant individuals
  • Withdrawal symptoms can be more dramatic when the drug has masked other underlying conditions like malnutrition, chronic pain, or infections
  • Genes that encode for the alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor affect withdrawal symptoms for nicotine and alcohol

Impact on Homeostasis

  • Homeostasis is the body's ability to maintain chemical equilibrium
  • Drug usage and withdrawal impact homeostasis
  • Internal systems adapt neurotransmitter, hormone, and substance levels to adjust for the presence of drugs
  • Stopping medications without physician supervision can be dangerous for conditions like diabetes, asthma, and heart conditions
  • Medication prioritization and discontinuation can decrease costs and risks, and focus therapies where they are most effective

Anti-hypertensive Drugs

  • Discontinuing vs continuing anti-hypertensive medications in older adults may not have a significant effect on mortality and heart attack incidence
  • Older adults should consult healthcare professionals before stopping any medications
  • Evidence suggests it may be safe to stop anti-hypertensive medications, but caution is still advised
  • Anti-hypertensive medications should not be discontinued without medical guidance

Related Concepts

  • Chemical dependency, drug detoxification, and drug tolerance are related concepts
  • Hangover, neonatal withdrawal, and rebound effect are also associated with drug withdrawal
  • Post-acute withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) can occur after the acute withdrawal phase
  • The Medication Appropriateness Tool for Comorbid Health Conditions in Dementia (MATCH-D) emphasizes careful monitoring of withdrawal symptoms in people with dementia
  • References: MeSH Browser, Laguna Treatment Hospital, Malenka RC et al., Nestler EJ, Koob GF et al., Volkow ND et al.

Withdrawal of Specific Drugs

  • Opiate and opioid withdrawal should be managed gradually and closely monitored
  • Withdrawal of psychiatric drugs should be done gradually and under supervision
  • Withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs in older people should be done with caution and under medical supervision
  • Classification codes for drug withdrawal (ICD-10 codes: F10.3-F19.3, ICD-9-CM code: 292.0) provide a standardized system for classification and accurate medical coding and record-keeping.

Drug withdrawal Data Sources

Reference URL
Glossary https://www.alternix.com/blogs/glossary-of-terms/drug-withdrawal
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_withdrawal
Wikidata https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q498902
Knowledge Graph https://www.google.com/search?kgmid=/m/064qvry