Risk factors for relapse

  • Dopamine D2 receptor availability and its association with vulnerability to the reinforcing effects of cocaine
  • Changes in D2 receptor availability as a result of cocaine use
  • Influence of social hierarchy on vulnerability to substance use

Triggers for relapse

  • Factors such as pharmacokinetics, dose, and neurochemistry of the drug influencing drug taking and relapse
  • Three main triggers for drug relapse: stress, re-exposure to the drug, and environmental cues
  • Stress-induced craving and drug-seeking behavior during abstinence
  • Drug-priming and cues associated with the drug triggering craving and reinstatement

Treatment approaches to reduce relapse

  • Three main approaches: pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavioral techniques, and contingency management
  • Goals of treatment: identifying needs previously met by drug use and developing alternative ways to meet those needs
  • Pharmacotherapy targeting neurotransmitter receptors and changes in the medial prefrontal cortex
  • Cognitive behavioral techniques incorporating conditioning, coping mechanisms, and relapse prevention
  • Contingency management using rewards or punishments based on abstinence

Factors related to relapse in different populations

  • Differences between sexes in relapse rates, periods of abstinence, and responsiveness to drug-related cues
  • Role of ovarian hormones in drug-primed relapse in females and their impact on withdrawal and craving
  • Influence of cyclic, hormone-based timing on quitting an addictive substance and susceptibility to relapse

Protocols and limitations in studying relapse

  • Protocols including self-administration, extinction, reinstatement, and neuroimaging techniques
  • Limitations of relapse protocols as a model of craving and relapse in humans
  • Moderate face validity but little face validity as a model of craving
  • Importance of further research to determine predictive validity and functional equivalence

Relapse Data Sources

Reference URL
Knowledge Graph