Lung cancer

Signs, Symptoms, and Diagnostic Techniques

  • Early lung cancer often has no symptoms.
  • Symptoms can include coughing, shortness of breath, or chest pain.
  • Coughing may be a new cough or an increase in frequency or strength of a pre-existing cough.
  • Around one in four people with lung cancer cough up blood.
  • Shortness of breath is experienced by around half of those diagnosed with lung cancer.
  • Chest X-ray is often performed as a first imaging test.
  • CT scanning can reveal the size and location of tumors.
  • A definitive diagnosis of lung cancer requires a biopsy of the suspected tissue.
  • Histological examination of the biopsy confirms the presence of cancer cells.
  • Some lung tumors may not be visible on X-ray.
  • Fiberoptic bronchoscope, fine needle aspiration, imaging-guided biopsy, and liquid biopsy are diagnostic techniques.
  • PET or PET-CT scanning can be used to locate metastases.
  • MRI or CT scan can scan the brain for metastases.
  • Biopsy of suspected metastasis is required to confirm cancer.

Metastasis and Symptoms

  • Lung cancer can metastasize to various parts of the body.
  • Brain metastases can cause headaches, nausea, seizures, and neurological deficits.
  • Bone metastases can cause pain, fractures, and compression of the spinal cord.
  • Liver metastases can cause liver enlargement, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
  • Lung tumors can release hormones, leading to paraneoplastic syndromes with various symptoms.

Treatment Options

  • Early stage lung cancer can be treated with surgery to remove the tumor.
  • Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be used after surgery to kill remaining cancer cells.
  • Later stage lung cancer is treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Drug treatments targeting specific cancer subtypes are also used.
  • The survival rate for lung cancer is around 20% after five years of diagnosis.

Causes, Prevention, and Screening

  • Most lung cancer cases are caused by tobacco smoking.
  • Exposure to hazardous substances like asbestos and radon gas can also cause lung cancer.
  • Genetic mutations can contribute to the development of lung cancer.
  • Quitting smoking can reduce the risk of developing lung cancer.
  • Lung cancer prevention efforts focus on avoiding hazardous chemicals and quitting smoking.
  • High-risk individuals may be screened using low-dose CT lung scans.
  • Screening programs can lead to early detection of lung tumors.
  • Early detection can result in successful treatment and decreased mortality.
  • Recommended intervals for lung cancer screening.

Classification, Staging, and Prognosis

  • Two main types of lung cancer: SCLC and NSCLC.
  • SCLC tumors found near the center of the lungs.
  • NSCLC includes adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, and large-cell carcinoma.
  • Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer.
  • Different subtypes and growth characteristics of lung cancer.
  • SCLC staged as limited or extensive.
  • NSCLC staged with TNM staging system.
  • Tumor size and extent (T), spread to lymph nodes (N), and metastases (M) are scored.
  • Stage groups based on T, N, and M scores.
  • Different stages and subgroups based on T, N, and M scores.
  • Prognosis for lung cancer is influenced by the stage at diagnosis.
  • Early detection and treatment significantly improve the chances of survival.
  • The specific cell type of lung cancer can affect prognosis and treatment options.
  • Overall health and the presence of other medical conditions impact prognosis.
  • Smoking cessation can improve prognosis and reduce the risk of developing a second lung cancer.

Lung cancer Data Sources

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