Classification and Health Effects of Exercise

  • Physical exercises are grouped into three types: aerobic, anaerobic, and flexibility.
  • Aerobic exercise uses large muscle groups and increases cardiovascular endurance.
  • Examples of aerobic exercise include running, cycling, swimming, brisk walking, and dancing.
  • Anaerobic exercise includes strength training, which can increase muscle mass and improve bone density.
  • Flexibility exercises, such as stretching, improve joint flexibility and reduce the chance of injury.
  • Exercise contributes to maintaining physical fitness, healthy weight, and strong bones and muscles.
  • It regulates the digestive system, strengthens the immune system, and reduces surgical risks.
  • Moderate to high levels of physical exercise lower the mortality rate compared to being inactive.
  • Exercise has been correlated with preventing aging and reducing inflammatory potential.
  • The majority of benefits are achieved with around 3500 metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week.

Exercise and Fitness

  • Increasing physical activity levels can improve fitness.
  • Muscle size from resistance training is determined by diet and testosterone.
  • Exercising in middle age may lead to better physical ability later in life.
  • Early motor skills and development are related to physical activity and performance later in life.
  • The type and intensity of physical activity may affect a person's fitness level.

Exercise and Cardiovascular System

  • Exercise has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system.
  • Physical inactivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
  • Regular exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality.
  • Academic stress in youth increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, which can be decreased with exercise.
  • Moderate-intensity activity is most beneficial for reducing mortality and improving cardiovascular profiles.

Exercise and Immune System

  • Moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on the human immune system.
  • There is little direct evidence on the connection between exercise and illness.
  • Epidemiological evidence suggests a J curve relationship between moderate exercise and the immune system.
  • Exercise may have a positive impact on the immune system, but more research is needed.
  • The specific effects of exercise on immune function are still being studied.
  • Exercise is associated with a 29% decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI).
  • Prolonged high-intensity exercise, such as marathon running, may increase the risk of infection occurrence.
  • Acute sessions of prolonged, high-intensity exercise can impair immune cell functions.
  • Strenuous and prolonged exercise, like training for a marathon, can suppress the immune system by decreasing lymphocyte concentration.
  • Vitamin C supplementation has been linked to a lower incidence of URTIs in marathon runners.

Exercise and Other Health Effects

  • Physical activity is associated with reduced all-cause, breast cancer-specific, and colon cancer-specific mortality.
  • Exercise may positively affect the quality of life in cancer survivors, including factors like anxiety and self-esteem.
  • Exercise can have positive effects on health-related quality of life, such as fatigue and physical functioning, in people undergoing cancer treatment.
  • Higher intensity exercise may have more pronounced effects on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors.
  • Limited scientific evidence suggests that individuals with cancer cachexia should engage in physical exercise.
  • Consistent aerobic exercise can induce improvements in cognitive functions, neuroplasticity, and behavioral plasticity.
  • Exercise can lead to increased neuron growth, improved stress coping, enhanced cognitive control, and improved memory.
  • Regular aerobic exercise is associated with greater scores on neuropsychological function and performance tests.
  • Aerobic exercise promotes positive affect, inhibits negative affect, and decreases the biological response to acute psychological stress.
  • Exercise may improve symptoms associated with central nervous system disorders and be used as adjunct therapy for certain conditions.
  • Exercise has a marked and persistent antidepressant effect in humans.
  • Physical exercise is more effective than a control intervention and comparable to psychological or antidepressant drug therapies for depression.
  • Physical exercise is recommended as an adjunct treatment for mild-moderate depression and mental illness.
  • Yoga may be effective in alleviating symptoms of prenatal depression.
  • Clinical trials support the efficacy of physical exercise as a treatment for depression over a 2-4 month period.
  • Exercise may be used as adjunct therapy for neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
  • Regular exercise is associated with a lower risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders.
  • The American Academy of Neurology recommends regular exercise for individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment.
  • Exercise shows promise as an adjunct therapy for the treatment and prevention of drug addictions.
  • Reviews of clinical evidence support the use of exercise as adjunct therapy for certain neurodegenerative disorders.
  • Physical training for up to four months may increase sleep quality in adults over 40 years of age.
  • Exercise generally improves sleep for most people and may help with insomnia.
  • Exercise can improve sleep quality in people with insomnia.
  • Preliminary evidence suggests that exercise may be beneficial for sleep, but more research is needed.
  • Exercising can improve sexual arousal problems related to antidepressant use.
  • Regular physical activity may enhance sexual function.
  • Exercise can increase libido in both men and women.
  • Physical fitness is associated with better sexual health.
  • Physical exercise improves cardiovascular fitness.
  • Exercise can increase lung capacity.
  • Regular physical activity can improve respiratory function.
  • There may be concerns about air pollution exposure during outdoor exercise, especially near traffic.
  • Resistance training promotes muscle hypertrophy and strength gains.
  • Muscle protein synthesis is stimulated by resistance training and protein-rich meals.
  • Muscle protein breakdown is suppressed by increases in plasma insulin.
  • Aerobic exercise induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle.
  • Exercise activates specific molecular signaling cascades that enhance muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis.
  • Aerobic exercise increases stroke volume and maximal aerobic capacity.
  • Resistance training leads to muscular hypertrophy and increased neural drive.
  • Skeletal muscle releases myokines, which promote tissue growth and repair.
  • Exercise reduces cortisol levels, which can have various health benefits.
  • Vigorous exercise may induce greater cardiac hypertrophy than moderate exercise, but the long-term effects are uncertain.
  • Exercise may affect the central nervous system through the release of neurotrophic factor hormones.

Exercise Data Sources

Reference URL
Glossary https://www.alternix.com/blogs/glossary-of-terms/exercise
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exercise
Wikidata https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q219067
Knowledge Graph https://www.google.com/search?kgmid=/m/019w6h