Substance dependence

Substance Dependence and Addiction

  • Substance dependence is a biopsychological condition where an individual's functionality is dependent on re-consumption of a psychoactive substance.
  • Substance dependence is classified as a mental and behavioral disorder.
  • Drug addiction is defined as compulsive, out-of-control drug use.
  • Substance dependence and drug addiction are distinct concepts, although addictive drugs are both rewarding and reinforcing.
  • Substance dependence can be diagnosed without the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome.
  • ΔFosB, a gene transcription factor, is a common factor in both behavioral and drug addictions.

Classification and Diagnosis

  • Substance abuse and substance dependence have merged into substance use disorders.
  • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced this change in 2013.
  • Substance use disorders are diagnosed when problems persist despite negative consequences.
  • Compulsive and repetitive use may result in tolerance and withdrawal symptoms.

Withdrawal and its Effects

  • Withdrawal is the body's reaction to abstaining from a substance.
  • Cessation of substance use produces an unpleasant state.
  • Negative reinforcement promotes continued drug use.
  • Withdrawal state includes physical-somatic and emotional-motivational symptoms.
  • Chemical and hormonal imbalances may arise without re-introduction of the substance.

Risk Factors and Biomolecular Mechanisms

  • Mental health is a risk factor for illicit drug dependency or abuse.
  • Dependence potential varies based on dose, frequency, and pharmacokinetics.
  • Capture rates indicate the percentage of users who become dependent on a drug.
  • Psychological dependence involves neuropeptides and gene transcription factors.
  • Physical dependence is linked to changes in the cAMP signal transduction pathway.

Treatment Approaches and Goals

  • Residential drug treatment programs, such as 12-step programs and therapeutic communities, are available.
  • Behavioral programming, including cognitive-behavioral therapy and evidence-based intervention programs, is critical in achieving abstinence.
  • Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, can be used as complementary treatments alongside traditional approaches.
  • Different types of addiction treatment exist based on factors such as the type of drugs involved and medical complications.
  • The ultimate goal of addiction treatment is to enable individuals to manage their substance misuse, with harm reduction as a key concept.

Substance dependence Data Sources

Reference URL
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