Oral cancer

Definition, Symptoms, and Diagnosis of Oral Cancer

  • Oral cancer is a cancer of the lining of the lips, mouth, or upper throat.
  • It often starts as a painless white patch in the mouth that thickens and develops red patches, ulcers, and continues to grow.
  • On the lips, it appears as a persistent crusting ulcer that does not heal and slowly grows.
  • Other symptoms include difficult or painful swallowing, new lumps or bumps in the neck, swelling in the mouth, or numbness in the mouth or lips.
  • Diagnosis is made through a biopsy of the concerning area.
  • Additional investigations include CT scan, MRI, and PET scan to determine the extent of the cancer.
  • Examination is done to check if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
  • Oral cancer is a subgroup of head and neck cancers.
  • Early diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment.

Risk Factors for Oral Cancer

  • Tobacco and alcohol use are significant risk factors for oral cancer.
  • Those who use both alcohol and tobacco have a 15 times greater risk compared to non-users.
  • HPV infection is another risk factor for oral cancer.
  • Chewing paan, a mixture of betel leaf and areca nut, increases the risk.
  • Sun exposure on the lower lip is also a risk factor.

Prevention and Treatment of Oral Cancer

  • Oral cancer can be prevented by avoiding tobacco products and limiting alcohol use.
  • Sun protection on the lower lip is recommended.
  • HPV vaccination and avoidance of paan can also help prevent oral cancer.
  • Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
  • The choice of treatment depends on the size, location, and spread of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient.

Global Statistics on Oral Cancer

  • In 2018, oral cancer affected approximately 355,000 people worldwide and caused 177,000 deaths.

US Statistics on Oral Cancer

  • Between 1999 and 2015, the rate of oral cancer in the United States increased by 6%.
  • During the same period, deaths from oral cancer decreased by 7%.
  • The incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer remain significant public health concerns.
  • Awareness, early detection, and access to appropriate treatment are essential in reducing the impact of oral cancer.

Oral cancer Data Sources

Reference URL
Glossary https://www.alternix.com/blogs/glossary-of-terms/oral-cancer
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oral_cancer
Wikidata https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1143025
Knowledge Graph https://www.google.com/search?kgmid=/m/025hkl