Nicotine replacement therapy

Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) for Smoking Cessation

  • NRT is used to treat tobacco use disorder and help with quitting smoking or chewing tobacco.
  • NRT increases the chance of quitting smoking by about 55%.
  • Different forms of NRT, such as gum, patches, nasal spray, inhalers, and lozenges, have similar success rates.
  • Combining different NRT methods may improve success rates.
  • Using NRT with counseling improves tobacco abstinence rates.
  • Other strategies like creating a quit plan and utilizing quit programs can enhance the effectiveness of NRT.

Safety and Side Effects of NRT

  • Nitrosonornicotine, a strong carcinogen, has been found in the urine of some users of oral NRT products.
  • Nicotine patches are an alternative to reduce toxicity.
  • Common side effects of NRT products include nausea, hiccups, irritation of the mouth, skin irritation, dry mouth, cough, runny nose, and headaches.
  • Serious risks include nicotine poisoning and continued addiction to nicotine products.
  • Pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers should consult a physician before using NRT.

Special Considerations for NRT Use

  • NRT should be used cautiously in individuals with certain medical conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, reactive airway diseases, nasal disorders, diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, liver problems, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, phenylketonuria, renal problems, and skin conditions.
  • Different forms of NRT have specific considerations for certain conditions.
  • Individualized medical advice should be sought for using NRT in these conditions.

Nicotine Exposure during Pregnancy

  • Nicotine is not safe to use during pregnancy.
  • Nicotine crosses the placenta and is found in breast milk.
  • Nicotine exposure during pregnancy can negatively affect fetal brain development and pregnancy outcomes.
  • There is a risk of stillbirth, pre-term birth, and long-term health issues for the child.
  • Nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy should be approached with caution.

Other Topics Related to NRT

  • Physicians should be consulted before starting NRT in individuals under the age of eighteen.
  • Nicotine exposure between the ages of 10 and 25 can cause lasting harm to the brain and cognitive ability.
  • Smoking is a known cause of cardiovascular diseases.
  • NRT works by reducing cravings due to nicotine addiction.
  • Different NRT products have varying times for nicotine to enter and stay in the body.
  • Future approaches of NRT include nicotine preloading, true pulmonary inhalers, nicotine vaccines, combination NRT, and nicotine inhalers.

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