Applications of Distillation

  • Distillation is used in the production of distilled beverages with high alcohol content.
  • It is an effective method of desalination.
  • In the petroleum industry, distillation is used for oil stabilization and fractional distillation.
  • Cryogenic distillation is employed to separate air into its components for industrial use.
  • In the chemical industry, distillation is used to separate crude liquid products of chemical synthesis.

History of Distillation

  • Distillation was practiced in the ancient Near East as early as 3000 BCE.
  • Aristotle observed that evaporated seawater condenses into freshwater.
  • Distillation was practiced in ancient India and China during the first to fifth centuries CE.
  • Evidence of distillation has been found related to alchemists in Alexandria in the first century CE.
  • Distilled water has been in use since at least 200 CE.

Distillation in the Islamic Golden Age

  • Medieval Muslim chemists such as Jābir ibn Ḥayyān and Abū Bakr al-Rāzī experimented extensively with distillation.
  • The distillation of wine was described in Arabic works attributed to al-Kindī and al-Fārābī.
  • Recipes for producing ethanol through distillation appeared in Latin works in the 12th century.
  • Taddeo Alderotti described a method for concentrating alcohol through repeated distillation.
  • Fractional distillation played an important role in the works attributed to Jābir.

Distillation in Ancient China

  • The distillation of beverages began in the Southern Song and Jin dynasties.
  • Archaeological evidence of distillation has been found in China dating back to the 12th century.
  • Distilled beverages were common during the Yuan dynasty.
  • Distillation played a significant role in Chinese culture and history.
  • The distillation of alcohol has a long tradition in ancient China.

Modern Era of Distillation

  • In 1500, Hieronymus Brunschwig published the first book solely dedicated to distillation.
  • John French published the first major English compendium on distillation in 1651.
  • Distillation evolved from alchemy into the science of chemistry.
  • Vessels called retorts became commonly used for distillation.
  • Distillation is still widely practiced today in various industries.

Distillation Data Sources

Reference URL
Glossary https://www.alternix.com/blogs/glossary-of-terms/distillation
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distillation
Wikidata https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q101017
Knowledge Graph https://www.google.com/search?kgmid=/m/029r1