Bad breath

Signs, Symptoms, and Prevalence of Bad Breath

  • Noticeably unpleasant breath odor
  • Associated with anxiety, depression, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Can cause social stigma and affect daily life
  • Common reason for seeking dental care
  • Estimated rates of bad breath vary from 6% to 50% of the population

Causes of Bad Breath

  • 85% of genuine bad breath cases originate from inside the mouth
  • Remaining cases may be due to disorders in the nose, sinuses, throat, lungs, esophagus, or stomach
  • Rarely, underlying medical conditions such as liver failure or ketoacidosis can cause bad breath
  • Non-genuine cases occur when someone complains of bad breath but others cannot detect it
  • Treatment depends on the underlying cause

Locations in the Mouth Contributing to Bad Breath

  • Mouth: odor-producing biofilm on the back of the tongue or other areas of the mouth due to poor oral hygiene
  • Tongue: anaerobic bacteria on the back of the tongue thrive under a coating of food debris, dead cells, and bacteria
  • Gums: gingival crevices and periodontal pockets can contribute to bad breath

Locations Outside the Mouth Contributing to Bad Breath

  • Nose and Sinuses: nasal odor due to sinus infections, foreign bodies in the nose, chronic rhinosinusitis
  • Tonsils: chronic caseous tonsillitis, tonsillolithiasis (tonsil stones), peritonsillar abscess
  • Esophagus: lower esophageal sphincter not closing properly, hiatal hernia or GERD causing acid reflux, Zenkers diverticulum retaining aging food
  • Stomach and Systemic Diseases: allyl methyl sulfide from garlic digestion, systemic diseases causing foul breath odor

Classification, Management, and Research on Bad Breath

  • Classification: genuine halitosis, pseudohalitosis, and halitophobia
  • Management: physical or chemical means to decrease bacteria in the mouth, addressing underlying diseases, counseling
  • Research: studies on etiology, diagnosis, and management of halitosis, effectiveness of mechanical measures and mouthwashes
  • Social and Psychological Impact: self-perception issues, impact on personal relationships, measurement methods and future prospects for assessing oral malodor

Bad breath Data Sources

Reference URL
Knowledge Graph