Adverse effect

Adverse Effects Reporting Systems

  • Adverse events are required by law to be reported and researched in clinical trials.
  • Reporting systems in the UK include the Yellow Card Scheme.
  • Reporting systems in the US include VAERS, MAUDE, and MedWatch.
  • The Yellow Card Scheme gathers information on adverse effects to medicines in the UK.
  • The Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring (CARM) is New Zealand's national monitoring center for adverse reactions.
  • Adverse reaction reporting is conducted by the Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) of Health Canada.

Adverse Effects in Surgical Procedures

  • Adverse effects can occur in surgical procedures, such as tissue damage, loss of function, or changes in local blood flow.
  • Minimally invasive surgery reduces adverse effects compared to traditional surgery.
  • Surgical procedures may result in irreversible adverse effects, such as limb amputation in cases of untreatable gangrene.
  • Reversible adverse effects can also occur, requiring careful consideration of the risks and benefits.

Adverse Effects in Nonsurgical Physical Procedures

  • High-intensity radiation therapy can cause burns and alterations in the skin.
  • Side effects of nonsurgical physical procedures vary depending on the specific treatment.
  • These procedures are designed to minimize adverse effects, but they can still occur.
  • Adverse effects may include local reactions, changes in skin appearance, or discomfort.

Adverse Effects in Vaccination

  • Common adverse effects of vaccination include fever, malaise, and local reactions at the vaccination site.
  • Serious adverse effects are rare but can occur, such as eczema vaccinatum.
  • People with eczema or atopic dermatitis are at higher risk of this severe complication.
  • Overall, the benefits of vaccination outweigh the potential adverse effects.

Adverse Effects of Medications

  • Adverse effects can occur as collateral or side effects of many interventions, particularly in pharmacology.
  • Drug interactions, including herbal and dietary supplements, can cause significant morbidity and mortality.
  • Natural drugs used in alternative medicine can have dangerous adverse effects.
  • Responsible drug use and precise pharmacokinetics can help avoid or decrease adverse effects.
  • Specific adverse effects of medications include prolonged priapism and tachycardia with sildenafil citrate ingestion, rhabdomyolysis with statin use, seizures with benzodiazepine withdrawal, and tardive dyskinesia with metoclopramide use.

Adverse effect Data Sources

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