Smoking cessation

Smoking Cessation Methods

  • Unassisted methods: cold turkey, gradual reduction, home remedies, cigarette reduction, repeated attempts without assistance
  • Behavioral counseling: individual counseling, group counseling, telephone counseling, online counseling, self-help materials
  • Medications: nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, varenicline, cytisine, mecamylamine
  • Alternative therapies: acupuncture, hypnosis, mindfulness meditation, yoga, herbal remedies
  • Combination approaches: combining medication with behavioral counseling, combining multiple medications, combining medication with alternative therapies, combining different behavioral counseling techniques, combining different alternative therapies

Unassisted Quitting Methods

  • Cold turkey: sudden and complete cessation of nicotine use, high success rate, used by two-thirds of recent quitters
  • Gradual reduction: slowly decreasing daily nicotine intake, no significant difference in quit rates compared to abrupt cessation, can be aided by certain medications
  • Home remedies: various natural or DIY methods, lack scientific evidence but may help some individuals, often used in combination with other quitting methods
  • Cigarette reduction: gradually decreasing the number of cigarettes smoked daily, can be done with or without assistance, effectiveness varies among individuals
  • Repeated attempts without assistance: trying to quit multiple times on one's own, common approach for most smokers, can be a stepping stone towards successful quitting

Medications for Smoking Cessation

  • Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT): patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, oral sprays, nasal sprays, improves success rate of quitting, some reported side effects
  • Bupropion: antidepressant, increases long-term success rates, potential side effects
  • Varenicline: decreases urge to smoke and reduces withdrawal symptoms, higher cessation rates compared to other medications
  • Cytisine: partial nicotine receptor agonist, similar effectiveness to NRT, more affordable
  • Mecamylamine: enhances the effectiveness of NRT, limited evidence as a standalone medication

Behavioral Counseling for Smoking Cessation

  • Individual counseling: one-on-one sessions with a trained counselor, tailored approach to address personal smoking triggers and challenges
  • Group counseling: therapy in a group setting, more helpful than self-help and other individual interventions
  • Telephone counseling: reactive and proactive interventions, additional calls can help smokers quit for six months or longer
  • Online counseling: online social cessation networks have shown effectiveness, particularly among young smokers
  • Self-help materials: books, websites, apps, multiple formats increase quit rates

Additional Interventions for Smoking Cessation

  • Community interventions: smoke-free policies, voluntary rules for smoke-free homes, public education, tobacco price increase, mass media campaigns
  • Pharmacist interventions: pharmacist-led interventions, counselling, NRT products, structured care, accessibility
  • Digital interventions: web-based and mobile phone-based programs, supportive text messages, long-term treatment effects
  • Counseling and support: reactive and proactive telephone counseling, additional calls to quitlines, online social cessation networks, group therapy
  • Counseling styles: motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, Freedom From Smoking group clinic, stage-based interventions
  • Setting a quit date: creating a quit plan, setting a quit date (preferably on Monday), increasing motivation to quit, anticipating and planning for quitting

Smoking cessation Data Sources

Reference URL
Knowledge Graph