Drug tolerance

Definition and Classification of Drug Tolerance

  • Drug tolerance refers to a reduced response to a drug after repeated exposure.
  • Tolerance can develop to various effects of a drug, including its therapeutic and side effects.
  • It is classified into acute tolerance, chronic tolerance, and behavioral tolerance.
  • Acute tolerance occurs within a single administration of a drug.
  • Chronic tolerance develops over time with repeated drug use.

Mechanisms of Drug Tolerance

  • Pharmacokinetic tolerance results from changes in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, or elimination.
  • Pharmacodynamic tolerance occurs due to adaptations in drug target receptors or downstream signaling pathways.
  • Metabolic tolerance involves the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes.
  • Cellular tolerance can be caused by changes in intracellular signaling or gene expression.
  • Behavioral tolerance refers to adaptations in behavior that reduce the apparent effects of a drug.

Factors Influencing Drug Tolerance

  • Dose and frequency of drug administration play a role in the development of tolerance.
  • Genetic factors can influence an individual's susceptibility to drug tolerance.
  • Drug interactions can affect the development and expression of tolerance.
  • Environmental factors, such as stress or contextual cues, can influence drug tolerance.
  • Age and developmental stage can impact the development and expression of tolerance.

Clinical Implications of Drug Tolerance

  • Drug tolerance can lead to the need for higher drug doses to achieve the desired effect.
  • Tolerance can contribute to the development of drug dependence and addiction.
  • It can complicate the management of chronic pain and require dose adjustments.
  • Tolerance can increase the risk of overdose when individuals escalate their drug use.
  • Understanding drug tolerance is important for optimizing drug therapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Strategies to Manage Drug Tolerance

  • Drug holidays, where the drug is temporarily discontinued, can help reduce tolerance.
  • Dose adjustments or switching to alternative drugs with different mechanisms of action can be effective.
  • Combination therapies or drug rotation strategies can help mitigate tolerance.
  • Non-pharmacological interventions, such as behavioral therapy, can complement drug therapy.
  • Monitoring drug levels and adjusting dosages based on therapeutic drug monitoring can be beneficial.

Drug tolerance Data Sources

Reference URL
Glossary https://www.alternix.com/blogs/glossary-of-terms/drug-tolerance
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_tolerance
Wikidata https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1425425
Knowledge Graph https://www.google.com/search?kgmid=/m/030rr2