Circulatory system

Structure and Function of the Circulatory System

  • The circulatory system includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
  • The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels.
  • The circulatory system has two major circuits: pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation.
  • Blood consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  • The lymphatic system is a complementary subsystem of the circulatory system.
  • Blood transports nutrients, oxygen, and waste materials throughout the body.
  • The circulatory system helps regulate body temperature and pH levels.

Blood Flow and Circulatory Routes

  • The pulmonary circulation carries deoxygenated blood from the right heart to the lungs for oxygenation.
  • The systemic circulation delivers oxygenated blood from the left heart to the rest of the body.
  • The average adult has approximately 5-6 quarts of blood.
  • The circulatory system has additional routes such as coronary circulation, cerebral circulation, renal circulation, and bronchial circulation.
  • Gas exchange occurs in the lungs, releasing carbon dioxide and absorbing oxygen.
  • Oxygen-rich blood returns to the left atrium via the pulmonary vein.

Lymphatic System

  • The lymphatic system is essential for the functioning of the circulatory system.
  • It consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, organs, tissues, and circulating lymph.
  • The lymphatic system carries excess fluid (lymph) away from body tissues.
  • It works together with the immune system to defend against pathogens.
  • The lymphatic system drains interstitial fluid back to the heart for return to the circulatory system.

Heart and Pulmonary Circulation

  • The heart pumps blood to provide nutrients and oxygen to every cell in the body.
  • It consists of four chambers: left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, and right ventricle.
  • The left heart pumps oxygenated blood in the systemic circulation.
  • The right heart pumps deoxygenated blood in the pulmonary circulation.
  • The heart receives deoxygenated blood in the right atrium and oxygenated blood in the left atrium.
  • Pulmonary circulation carries oxygen-depleted blood from the heart to the lungs.

Blood Vessels and Development

  • Arteries, veins, and capillaries are the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
  • The aorta is a thick-walled artery that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation.
  • Arteries branch into arterioles, which then lead to capillaries.
  • Capillaries merge to form venules, which then merge to form veins.
  • The circulatory system develops through vasculogenesis in the embryo.
  • The human arterial system originates from the aortic arches and dorsal aortae.
  • The human venous system develops from vitelline veins, umbilical veins, and cardinal veins.

Circulatory system Data Sources

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