Cellulose fiber

History and Structure

  • Cellulose was discovered in 1838 by Anselme Payen.
  • Cellulose was used to produce the first successful thermoplastic polymer, celluloid, in 1870.
  • Rayon production from cellulose began in the 1890s.
  • Cellophane was invented in 1912.
  • Acetate, a cellulosic product, was invented by Arthur D. Little in 1893.
  • Cellulose is a polymer made of repeating glucose molecules.
  • A cellulose molecule can be several hundred to over 10,000 glucose units long.
  • Cellulose is a straight chain polymer, unlike starch which is coiled.
  • Cellulose cannot be broken down into glucose subunits by animal enzymes.
  • Cellulose chains are linked by hydrogen bonds.

Types of Cellulose Fibers

  • Natural cellulose fibers are minimally processed from plant matter.
  • Cotton fibers and linen fibers are examples of natural cellulose fibers.
  • Natural fibers have strong hydrogen bonding and exhibit little interaction with water.
  • Natural fibers like cotton and wood are insoluble in water.
  • Cellulose does not bind to iodine to form a colored product.
  • Manufactured cellulose fibers come from plants processed into a pulp.
  • Rayon or viscose is a common manufactured cellulose fiber.
  • Manufactured cellulose fibers are extruded similar to synthetic fibers like polyester or nylon.
  • Wood pulp can be used to make rayon.
  • Manufactured cellulose fibers have similar properties to natural cellulose fibers.

Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties

  • Natural fibers are composed of microfibrils of cellulose in a matrix of hemicellulose and lignin.
  • The mechanical properties of natural fibers are determined by their structure and chemical composition.
  • Common constituents of natural fibers include cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, and ash.
  • The chemical composition of natural fibers varies depending on the type of fiber.
  • Natural fibers have stiffness and strength due to hydrogen bonding between cellulose chains.
  • The major constituents of natural fibers are cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, and ash.
  • The percentage of each component varies for each type of fiber.
  • Hemicellulose is responsible for moisture absorption and degradation.
  • Lignin ensures thermal stability but is responsible for UV degradation.
  • Mechanical properties of cellulose fibers can be compared to other commonly used fibers like glass fiber and aramid fiber.
  • Properties like density, elongation, tensile strength, and Young's modulus vary for different cellulose fibers.
  • Cotton, jute, flax, hemp, and ramie are examples of cellulose fibers with different mechanical properties.
  • Coir and softwood kraft are other examples of cellulose fibers with specific mechanical properties.

Surface and Interfacial Properties

  • Hydrophilicity, roughness, and surface charge determine the interaction of cellulose fibers with water.
  • The zeta potential of cellulose fibers correlates with their water uptake capability.
  • Waste fibers can be used as reinforcement in composite materials.
  • Composite materials made with cellulose fibers and polymers are stronger than the fiber alone.
  • Different polymer matrices can be mixed with cellulose fibers to create fiber-reinforced materials.

Applications and Environmental Impact

  • Regenerated cellulose fibers are used in the textile industry, such as rayon, modal, and Lyocell.
  • Cellulose fibers can be used as filter aids to improve filtration performance.
  • Cellulose fibers have advantages such as low density, low cost, recyclability, and biodegradability.
  • They can be used as a substitute for glass fibers in composite materials.
  • Cellulose fibers contribute to reducing environmental impact in various industries.
  • Sustainable practices in the production and use of cellulose fibers can contribute to environmental conservation.

Cellulose fiber Data Sources

Reference URL
Glossary https://www.alternix.com/blogs/glossary-of-terms/cellulose-fiber
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose_fiber
Wikidata https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q189109
Knowledge Graph https://www.google.com/search?kgmid=/m/06w1rb2