Definition and Classification of Drugs

  • A drug is any chemical substance that causes a change in an organism's physiology.
  • Drugs are distinguished from food and other substances that provide nutritional support.
  • Drugs can be consumed through inhalation, injection, smoking, ingestion, absorption, or dissolution.
  • In pharmacology, drugs are known for their known structure and ability to produce a biological effect.
  • Pharmaceutical drugs are used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose diseases and promote well-being.
  • Pharmaceutical drugs can be used for a limited duration or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.
  • Drugs are classified into drug classes based on their chemical structures, mechanism of action, and mode of action.
  • The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC) assigns drugs a unique code for specific drug classes.
  • The Biopharmaceutics Classification System categorizes drugs based on solubility and absorption properties.
  • Drug classification systems help in organizing and understanding the properties and uses of different drugs.

Psychoactive Drugs

  • Psychoactive drugs affect the central nervous system, altering perception, mood, or consciousness.
  • Psychoactive drugs are divided into groups such as stimulants, depressants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, and hallucinogens.
  • These drugs have been proven useful in treating various medical conditions, including mental disorders.
  • The most widely used psychoactive drugs include caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol.
  • Some psychoactive drugs are used for recreational purposes, providing pleasure rather than medicinal benefits.

Etymology of the Word 'Drug'

  • The English noun 'drug' is believed to originate from Old French and Middle Dutch.
  • The term possibly refers to medicinal plants preserved as dry matter in barrels.
  • The word may have originated from an early romanized form of the Al-Andalus language.
  • The possible transcription of the term is 'حطروكة' or 'hatruka.'
  • The etymology of the word 'drug' has multiple possible origins.

Spiritual and Religious Use of Drugs

  • Some religions, particularly ethnic religions, incorporate the use of entheogens, which are mostly hallucinogens.
  • Entheogens, such as kava, ayahuasca, and Salvia divinorum, are used to achieve religious ecstasy.
  • Shamans from various cultures use entheogens for spiritual healing and visionary states of consciousness.
  • Peyote, cannabis, and psychedelic mushrooms have also been used for their entheogenic properties.
  • Rastafari use marijuana (ganja) as a sacrament in their religious ceremonies.

Administration and Control of Drugs

  • Drugs can be administered through various routes, such as intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injection.
  • Inhalation, either through smoking or vaping, is another route of administration.
  • Drugs can also be taken orally, rectally, or sublingually.
  • Topical administration, through creams or ointments, can act locally or systemically.
  • Vaginal administration is primarily used for treating vaginal infections.
  • Governments have offices responsible for the control and supervision of drug manufacture and use.
  • International treaties, like the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, prohibit the use of narcotics.
  • The Convention on Psychotropic Substances addresses newer recreational drugs.
  • Different countries have varying legal status for specific drugs like Salvia divinorum.
  • Regulatory agencies like the FDA in the US and the NCB in India play a role in drug control.

Drug Data Sources

Reference URL
Glossary https://www.alternix.com/blogs/glossary-of-terms/drug
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug
Wikidata https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q8386
Knowledge Graph https://www.google.com/search?kgmid=/m/02kjb_